10 Status Code Definitions

9827cbd8583a74aaf63f5f9972b5a3f110 Status Code Definitions

Each Status-Code is described below, including a description of which method(s) it can follow and any metainformation required in the response.

10.1 Informational 1xx

This class of status code indicates a provisional response, consisting only of the Status-Line and optional headers, and is terminated by an empty line. There are no required headers for this class of status code. Since HTTP/1.0 did not define any 1xx status codes, servers MUST NOT send a 1xx response to an HTTP/1.0 client except under experimental conditions.

A client MUST be prepared to accept one or more 1xx status responses prior to a regular response, even if the client does not expect a 100 (Continue) status message. Unexpected 1xx status responses MAY be ignored by a user agent.

Proxies MUST forward 1xx responses, unless the connection between the proxy and its client has been closed, or unless the proxy itself requested the generation of the 1xx response. (For example, if a

proxy adds a “Expect: 100-continue” field when it forwards a request, then it need not forward the corresponding 100 (Continue) response(s).)

10.1.1 100 Continue

The client SHOULD continue with its request. This interim response is used to inform the client that the initial part of the request has been received and has not yet been rejected by the server. The client SHOULD continue by sending the remainder of the request or, if the request has already been completed, ignore this response. The server MUST send a final response after the request has been completed. See section 8.2.3 for detailed discussion of the use and handling of this status code.

10.1.2 101 Switching Protocols

The server understands and is willing to comply with the client’s request, via the Upgrade message header field (section 14.42), for a change in the application protocol being used on this connection. The server will switch protocols to those defined by the response’s Upgrade header field immediately after the empty line which terminates the 101 response.

The protocol SHOULD be switched only when it is advantageous to do so. For example, switching to a newer version of HTTP is advantageous over older versions, and switching to a real-time, synchronous protocol might be advantageous when delivering resources that use such features.

10.2 Successful 2xx

This class of status code indicates that the client’s request was successfully received, understood, and accepted.

10.2.1 200 OK

The request has succeeded. The information returned with the response is dependent on the method used in the request, for example:

GET an entity corresponding to the requested resource is sent in the response;

HEAD the entity-header fields corresponding to the requested resource are sent in the response without any message-body;

POST an entity describing or containing the result of the action;

TRACE an entity containing the request message as received by the end server.

10.2.2 201 Created

The request has been fulfilled and resulted in a new resource being created. The newly created resource can be referenced by the URI(s) returned in the entity of the response, with the most specific URI for the resource given by a Location header field. The response SHOULD include an entity containing a list of resource characteristics and location(s) from which the user or user agent can choose the one most appropriate. The entity format is specified by the media type given in the Content-Type header field. The origin server MUST create the resource before returning the 201 status code. If the action cannot be carried out immediately, the server SHOULD respond with 202 (Accepted) response instead.

A 201 response MAY contain an ETag response header field indicating the current value of the entity tag for the requested variant just created, see section 14.19.

10.2.3 202 Accepted

The request has been accepted for processing, but the processing has not been completed. The request might or might not eventually be acted upon, as it might be disallowed when processing actually takes place. There is no facility for re-sending a status code from an asynchronous operation such as this.

The 202 response is intentionally non-committal. Its purpose is to allow a server to accept a request for some other process (perhaps a batch-oriented process that is only run once per day) without requiring that the user agent’s connection to the server persist until the process is completed. The entity returned with this response SHOULD include an indication of the request’s current status and either a pointer to a status monitor or some estimate of when the user can expect the request to be fulfilled.

10.2.4 203 Non-Authoritative Information

The returned metainformation in the entity-header is not the definitive set as available from the origin server, but is gathered from a local or a third-party copy. The set presented MAY be a subset or superset of the original version. For example, including local annotation information about the resource might result in a superset of the metainformation known by the origin server. Use of this response code is not required and is only appropriate when the response would otherwise be 200 (OK).

10.2.5 204 No Content

The server has fulfilled the request but does not need to return an entity-body, and might want to return updated metainformation. The response MAY include new or updated metainformation in the form of entity-headers, which if present SHOULD be associated with the requested variant.

If the client is a user agent, it SHOULD NOT change its document view from that which caused the request to be sent. This response is primarily intended to allow input for actions to take place without causing a change to the user agent’s active document view, although any new or updated metainformation SHOULD be applied to the document currently in the user agent’s active view.

The 204 response MUST NOT include a message-body, and thus is always terminated by the first empty line after the header fields.

10.2.6 205 Reset Content

The server has fulfilled the request and the user agent SHOULD reset the document view which caused the request to be sent. This response is primarily intended to allow input for actions to take place via user input, followed by a clearing of the form in which the input is given so that the user can easily initiate another input action. The response MUST NOT include an entity.

10.2.7 206 Partial Content

The server has fulfilled the partial GET request for the resource. The request MUST have included a Range header field (section 14.35) indicating the desired range, and MAY have included an If-Range header field (section 14.27) to make the request conditional.

The response MUST include the following header fields:

      - Either a Content-Range header field (section 14.16) indicating
        the range included with this response, or a multipart/byteranges
        Content-Type including Content-Range fields for each part. If a
        Content-Length header field is present in the response, its
        value MUST match the actual number of OCTETs transmitted in the
        message-body.
      - Date
      - ETag and/or Content-Location, if the header would have been sent
        in a 200 response to the same request
      - Expires, Cache-Control, and/or Vary, if the field-value might
        differ from that sent in any previous response for the same
        variant

If the 206 response is the result of an If-Range request that used a strong cache validator (see section 13.3.3), the response SHOULD NOT include other entity-headers. If the response is the result of an If-Range request that used a weak validator, the response MUST NOT include other entity-headers; this prevents inconsistencies between cached entity-bodies and updated headers. Otherwise, the response MUST include all of the entity-headers that would have been returned with a 200 (OK) response to the same request.

A cache MUST NOT combine a 206 response with other previously cached content if the ETag or Last-Modified headers do not match exactly, see 13.5.4.

A cache that does not support the Range and Content-Range headers MUST NOT cache 206 (Partial) responses.

10.3 Redirection 3xx

This class of status code indicates that further action needs to be taken by the user agent in order to fulfill the request. The action required MAY be carried out by the user agent without interaction with the user if and only if the method used in the second request is GET or HEAD. A client SHOULD detect infinite redirection loops, since such loops generate network traffic for each redirection.

      Note: previous versions of this specification recommended a
      maximum of five redirections. Content developers should be aware
      that there might be clients that implement such a fixed
      limitation.

10.3.1 300 Multiple Choices

The requested resource corresponds to any one of a set of representations, each with its own specific location, and agent- driven negotiation information (section 12) is being provided so that the user (or user agent) can select a preferred representation and redirect its request to that location.

Unless it was a HEAD request, the response SHOULD include an entity containing a list of resource characteristics and location(s) from which the user or user agent can choose the one most appropriate. The entity format is specified by the media type given in the Content- Type header field. Depending upon the format and the capabilities of

the user agent, selection of the most appropriate choice MAY be performed automatically. However, this specification does not define any standard for such automatic selection.

If the server has a preferred choice of representation, it SHOULD include the specific URI for that representation in the Location field; user agents MAY use the Location field value for automatic redirection. This response is cacheable unless indicated otherwise.

10.3.2 301 Moved Permanently

The requested resource has been assigned a new permanent URI and any future references to this resource SHOULD use one of the returned URIs. Clients with link editing capabilities ought to automatically re-link references to the Request-URI to one or more of the new references returned by the server, where possible. This response is cacheable unless indicated otherwise.

The new permanent URI SHOULD be given by the Location field in the response. Unless the request method was HEAD, the entity of the response SHOULD contain a short hypertext note with a hyperlink to the new URI(s).

If the 301 status code is received in response to a request other than GET or HEAD, the user agent MUST NOT automatically redirect the request unless it can be confirmed by the user, since this might change the conditions under which the request was issued.

      Note: When automatically redirecting a POST request after
      receiving a 301 status code, some existing HTTP/1.0 user agents
      will erroneously change it into a GET request.

10.3.3 302 Found

The requested resource resides temporarily under a different URI. Since the redirection might be altered on occasion, the client SHOULD continue to use the Request-URI for future requests. This response is only cacheable if indicated by a Cache-Control or Expires header field.

The temporary URI SHOULD be given by the Location field in the response. Unless the request method was HEAD, the entity of the response SHOULD contain a short hypertext note with a hyperlink to the new URI(s).

If the 302 status code is received in response to a request other than GET or HEAD, the user agent MUST NOT automatically redirect the request unless it can be confirmed by the user, since this might change the conditions under which the request was issued.

      Note: RFC 1945 and RFC 2068 specify that the client is not allowed
      to change the method on the redirected request.  However, most
      existing user agent implementations treat 302 as if it were a 303
      response, performing a GET on the Location field-value regardless
      of the original request method. The status codes 303 and 307 have
      been added for servers that wish to make unambiguously clear which
      kind of reaction is expected of the client.

10.3.4 303 See Other

The response to the request can be found under a different URI and SHOULD be retrieved using a GET method on that resource. This method exists primarily to allow the output of a POST-activated script to redirect the user agent to a selected resource. The new URI is not a substitute reference for the originally requested resource. The 303 response MUST NOT be cached, but the response to the second (redirected) request might be cacheable.

The different URI SHOULD be given by the Location field in the response. Unless the request method was HEAD, the entity of the response SHOULD contain a short hypertext note with a hyperlink to the new URI(s).

      Note: Many pre-HTTP/1.1 user agents do not understand the 303
      status. When interoperability with such clients is a concern, the
      302 status code may be used instead, since most user agents react
      to a 302 response as described here for 303.

10.3.5 304 Not Modified

If the client has performed a conditional GET request and access is allowed, but the document has not been modified, the server SHOULD respond with this status code. The 304 response MUST NOT contain a message-body, and thus is always terminated by the first empty line after the header fields.

The response MUST include the following header fields:

      - Date, unless its omission is required by section 14.18.1

If a clockless origin server obeys these rules, and proxies and clients add their own Date to any response received without one (as already specified by [RFC 2068], section 14.19), caches will operate correctly.

      - ETag and/or Content-Location, if the header would have been sent
        in a 200 response to the same request
      - Expires, Cache-Control, and/or Vary, if the field-value might
        differ from that sent in any previous response for the same
        variant

If the conditional GET used a strong cache validator (see section 13.3.3), the response SHOULD NOT include other entity-headers. Otherwise (i.e., the conditional GET used a weak validator), the response MUST NOT include other entity-headers; this prevents inconsistencies between cached entity-bodies and updated headers.

If a 304 response indicates an entity not currently cached, then the cache MUST disregard the response and repeat the request without the conditional.

If a cache uses a received 304 response to update a cache entry, the cache MUST update the entry to reflect any new field values given in the response.

10.3.6 305 Use Proxy

The requested resource MUST be accessed through the proxy given by the Location field. The Location field gives the URI of the proxy. The recipient is expected to repeat this single request via the proxy. 305 responses MUST only be generated by origin servers.

      Note: RFC 2068 was not clear that 305 was intended to redirect a
      single request, and to be generated by origin servers only.  Not
      observing these limitations has significant security consequences.

10.3.7 306 (Unused)

The 306 status code was used in a previous version of the specification, is no longer used, and the code is reserved.

10.3.8 307 Temporary Redirect

The requested resource resides temporarily under a different URI. Since the redirection MAY be altered on occasion, the client SHOULD continue to use the Request-URI for future requests. This response is only cacheable if indicated by a Cache-Control or Expires header field.

The temporary URI SHOULD be given by the Location field in the response. Unless the request method was HEAD, the entity of the response SHOULD contain a short hypertext note with a hyperlink to the new URI(s) , since many pre-HTTP/1.1 user agents do not understand the 307 status. Therefore, the note SHOULD contain the information necessary for a user to repeat the original request on the new URI.

If the 307 status code is received in response to a request other than GET or HEAD, the user agent MUST NOT automatically redirect the request unless it can be confirmed by the user, since this might change the conditions under which the request was issued.

10.4 Client Error 4xx

The 4xx class of status code is intended for cases in which the client seems to have erred. Except when responding to a HEAD request, the server SHOULD include an entity containing an explanation of the error situation, and whether it is a temporary or permanent condition. These status codes are applicable to any request method. User agents SHOULD display any included entity to the user.

If the client is sending data, a server implementation using TCP SHOULD be careful to ensure that the client acknowledges receipt of the packet(s) containing the response, before the server closes the input connection. If the client continues sending data to the server after the close, the server’s TCP stack will send a reset packet to the client, which may erase the client’s unacknowledged input buffers before they can be read and interpreted by the HTTP application.

10.4.1 400 Bad Request

The request could not be understood by the server due to malformed syntax. The client SHOULD NOT repeat the request without modifications.

10.4.2 401 Unauthorized

The request requires user authentication. The response MUST include a WWW-Authenticate header field (section 14.47) containing a challenge applicable to the requested resource. The client MAY repeat the request with a suitable Authorization header field (section 14.8). If the request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401 response indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the prior response, and the user agent has already attempted authentication at least once, then the user SHOULD be presented the entity that was given in the response, since that entity might include relevant diagnostic information. HTTP access authentication is explained in “HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication” [43].

10.4.3 402 Payment Required

This code is reserved for future use.

10.4.4 403 Forbidden

The server understood the request, but is refusing to fulfill it. Authorization will not help and the request SHOULD NOT be repeated. If the request method was not HEAD and the server wishes to make public why the request has not been fulfilled, it SHOULD describe the reason for the refusal in the entity. If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 404 (Not Found) can be used instead.

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address. This status code is commonly used when the server does not wish to reveal exactly why the request has been refused, or when no other response is applicable.

10.4.6 405 Method Not Allowed

The method specified in the Request-Line is not allowed for the resource identified by the Request-URI. The response MUST include an Allow header containing a list of valid methods for the requested resource.

10.4.7 406 Not Acceptable

The resource identified by the request is only capable of generating response entities which have content characteristics not acceptable according to the accept headers sent in the request.

Unless it was a HEAD request, the response SHOULD include an entity containing a list of available entity characteristics and location(s) from which the user or user agent can choose the one most appropriate. The entity format is specified by the media type given in the Content-Type header field. Depending upon the format and the capabilities of the user agent, selection of the most appropriate choice MAY be performed automatically. However, this specification does not define any standard for such automatic selection.

      Note: HTTP/1.1 servers are allowed to return responses which are
      not acceptable according to the accept headers sent in the
      request. In some cases, this may even be preferable to sending a
      406 response. User agents are encouraged to inspect the headers of
      an incoming response to determine if it is acceptable.

If the response could be unacceptable, a user agent SHOULD temporarily stop receipt of more data and query the user for a decision on further actions.

10.4.8 407 Proxy Authentication Required

This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the client must first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy MUST return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (section 14.33) containing a challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested resource. The client MAY repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization header field (section 14.34). HTTP access authentication is explained in “HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication” [43].

10.4.9 408 Request Timeout

The client did not produce a request within the time that the server was prepared to wait. The client MAY repeat the request without modifications at any later time.

10.4.10 409 Conflict

The request could not be completed due to a conflict with the current state of the resource. This code is only allowed in situations where it is expected that the user might be able to resolve the conflict and resubmit the request. The response body SHOULD include enough

information for the user to recognize the source of the conflict. Ideally, the response entity would include enough information for the user or user agent to fix the problem; however, that might not be possible and is not required.

Conflicts are most likely to occur in response to a PUT request. For example, if versioning were being used and the entity being PUT included changes to a resource which conflict with those made by an earlier (third-party) request, the server might use the 409 response to indicate that it can’t complete the request. In this case, the response entity would likely contain a list of the differences between the two versions in a format defined by the response Content-Type.

10.4.11 410 Gone

The requested resource is no longer available at the server and no forwarding address is known. This condition is expected to be considered permanent. Clients with link editing capabilities SHOULD delete references to the Request-URI after user approval. If the server does not know, or has no facility to determine, whether or not the condition is permanent, the status code 404 (Not Found) SHOULD be used instead. This response is cacheable unless indicated otherwise.

The 410 response is primarily intended to assist the task of web maintenance by notifying the recipient that the resource is intentionally unavailable and that the server owners desire that remote links to that resource be removed. Such an event is common for limited-time, promotional services and for resources belonging to individuals no longer working at the server’s site. It is not necessary to mark all permanently unavailable resources as “gone” or to keep the mark for any length of time — that is left to the discretion of the server owner.

10.4.12 411 Length Required

The server refuses to accept the request without a defined Content- Length. The client MAY repeat the request if it adds a valid Content-Length header field containing the length of the message-body in the request message.

10.4.13 412 Precondition Failed

The precondition given in one or more of the request-header fields evaluated to false when it was tested on the server. This response code allows the client to place preconditions on the current resource metainformation (header field data) and thus prevent the requested method from being applied to a resource other than the one intended.

10.4.14 413 Request Entity Too Large

The server is refusing to process a request because the request entity is larger than the server is willing or able to process. The server MAY close the connection to prevent the client from continuing the request.

If the condition is temporary, the server SHOULD include a Retry- After header field to indicate that it is temporary and after what time the client MAY try again.

10.4.15 414 Request-URI Too Long

The server is refusing to service the request because the Request-URI is longer than the server is willing to interpret. This rare condition is only likely to occur when a client has improperly converted a POST request to a GET request with long query information, when the client has descended into a URI “black hole” of redirection (e.g., a redirected URI prefix that points to a suffix of itself), or when the server is under attack by a client attempting to exploit security holes present in some servers using fixed-length buffers for reading or manipulating the Request-URI.

10.4.16 415 Unsupported Media Type

The server is refusing to service the request because the entity of the request is in a format not supported by the requested resource for the requested method.

10.4.17 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable

A server SHOULD return a response with this status code if a request included a Range request-header field (section 14.35), and none of the range-specifier values in this field overlap the current extent of the selected resource, and the request did not include an If-Range request-header field. (For byte-ranges, this means that the first- byte-pos of all of the byte-range-spec values were greater than the current length of the selected resource.)

When this status code is returned for a byte-range request, the response SHOULD include a Content-Range entity-header field specifying the current length of the selected resource (see section 14.16). This response MUST NOT use the multipart/byteranges content- type.

10.4.18 417 Expectation Failed

The expectation given in an Expect request-header field (see section 14.20) could not be met by this server, or, if the server is a proxy, the server has unambiguous evidence that the request could not be met by the next-hop server.

10.5 Server Error 5xx

Response status codes beginning with the digit “5” indicate cases in which the server is aware that it has erred or is incapable of performing the request. Except when responding to a HEAD request, the server SHOULD include an entity containing an explanation of the error situation, and whether it is a temporary or permanent condition. User agents SHOULD display any included entity to the user. These response codes are applicable to any request method.

10.5.1 500 Internal Server Error

The server encountered an unexpected condition which prevented it from fulfilling the request.

10.5.2 501 Not Implemented

The server does not support the functionality required to fulfill the request. This is the appropriate response when the server does not recognize the request method and is not capable of supporting it for any resource.

10.5.3 502 Bad Gateway

The server, while acting as a gateway or proxy, received an invalid response from the upstream server it accessed in attempting to fulfill the request.

10.5.4 503 Service Unavailable

The server is currently unable to handle the request due to a temporary overloading or maintenance of the server. The implication is that this is a temporary condition which will be alleviated after some delay. If known, the length of the delay MAY be indicated in a Retry-After header. If no Retry-After is given, the client SHOULD handle the response as it would for a 500 response.

      Note: The existence of the 503 status code does not imply that a
      server must use it when becoming overloaded. Some servers may wish
      to simply refuse the connection.

10.5.5 504 Gateway Timeout

The server, while acting as a gateway or proxy, did not receive a timely response from the upstream server specified by the URI (e.g. HTTP, FTP, LDAP) or some other auxiliary server (e.g. DNS) it needed to access in attempting to complete the request.

      Note: Note to implementors: some deployed proxies are known to
      return 400 or 500 when DNS lookups time out.

10.5.6 505 HTTP Version Not Supported

The server does not support, or refuses to support, the HTTP protocol version that was used in the request message. The server is indicating that it is unable or unwilling to complete the request using the same major version as the client, as described in section 3.1, other than with this error message. The response SHOULD contain an entity describing why that version is not supported and what other protocols are supported by that server.

 

 

Reference: https://www.w3.org

Cheat Sheets

 

What Are Cheat Sheets?


It is very difficult for a programmer to decorate all functions,classes and attributes existing in the various languages that use on a daily 
basis, so we use cheat sheets to have a reference of what we need time to program. 
It would be more or less on a physics exam at school, you can do all accounts 
but do not remember all that lot of complex formulas, so you use a "cheat sheet"
with the formulas to be able to solve the exercises.
For this there are cheat sheets are generally available in two formats: PNG and PDF.
The cheat sheets available here, are not of my own, the credits are at the end. 
All of them are in the picture, PNG or JPG, as are the formats that most use 
for load faster. 

HTML

 

html-500x679

CSS

 

css-500x679

Javascript

 

javascriptsheatsheet

 

jQuery 1.3

 

jquery-1-3-500x312

 

jQuery 1.4

jquery-1-4-500x355

 

PHP

 

php-01-500x707

 

MySQL

 

mysql-500x650

 

WordPress

 

wordpress-500x312

 

mod_rewrite

 

mod_rewrite-500x677

Regular Expression

regular-expression-500x679

 

Credits: http://www.quicklycode.com, www.addedbytes.com, http://www.emezeta.com, moz.com

kali linux basic Comands cheat sheet

kali linux Basic Comands

 

 

kalilinux-png

Kali Linux commands Function
A
 apropos  Search Help manual pages
 apt-get  Search for and install software packages (Debian)
 aptitude  Search for and install software packages (Debian)
 aspell  Spell Checker
 awk  Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
B
 basename  Strip directory and suffix from filenames
 bash  GNU Bourne-Again Shell
 bc  Arbitrary precision calculator language
 bg  Send to background
 break  Exit from a loop
 builtin  Run a shell builtin
 bzip2  Compress or decompress named files
C
 cal  Display a calendar
 case  Conditionally perform a command
 cat  Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
 cd  Change Directory
 cfdisk  Partition table manipulator for Linux
 chgrp  Change
group ownership
 chmod  Change access permissions
 chown  Change file owner and group
 chroot  Run a command with a different root directory
 chkconfig  System services (runlevel)
 cksum  Print CRC checksum and byte counts
 clear  Clear terminal screen
 cmp  Compare two files
 comm  Compare two sorted files line by line
 command  Run a command – ignoring shell functions
 continue  Resume the next iteration of a loop
 cp  Copy one or more files to another location
 cron  Daemon to execute scheduled commands
 crontab  Schedule a command to run at a later time
 csplit  Split a file into context-determined pieces
 cut  Divide a file into several parts
D
 date  Display or change the date and time
 dc  Desk Calculator
 dd  Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
 ddrescue  Data recovery tool
 declare  Declare variables and give them attributes
 df  Display free disk space
 diff  Display the differences between two files
 diff3  Show differences among three files
 dig  DNS lookup
 dir  Briefly list directory contents
 dircolors  Colour setup for `ls’
 dirname  Convert a full pathname to just a path
 dirs  Display list of remembered directories
 dmesg  Print kernel & driver messages
 du  Estimate file space usage
E
 echo  Display message on screen
 egrep  Search files for lines that match an extended expression
 eject  Eject removable media
 enable  Enable and disable builtin shell commands
 env  Environment variables
 ethtool  Ethernet card settings
 eval  Evaluate several commands/arguments
 exec  Execute a command
 exit  Exit the shell
 expect  Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
 expand  Convert tabs to spaces
 export  Set an environment variable
 expr  Evaluate expressions
F
 false  Do nothing, unsuccessfully
 fdformat  Low-level format a floppy disk
 fdisk  Partition table manipulator for Linux
 fg  Send job to foreground
 fgrep  Search files for lines that match a fixed string
 file  Determine file type
 find  Search for files that meet a desired criteria
 fmt  Reformat paragraph text
 fold  Wrap text to fit a specified width
 for  Expand words, and execute commands
 format  Format disks or tapes
 free  Display memory usage
 fsck  File system consistency check and repair
 ftp  File Transfer Protocol
 function  Define Function Macros
 fuser  Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file
G
 gawk  Find and Replace text within files
 getopts  Parse positional parameters
 grep  Search files for lines that match a given pattern
 groupadd  Add a user security group
 groupdel  Delete a group
 groupmod  Modify a group
 groups  Print group names a user is in
 gzip  Compress or decompress named files
H
 hash  Remember the full pathname of a name argument
 head  Output the first part of files
 help  Display help for a built-in command
 history  Command History
 hostname  Print or set system name
I
 iconv  Convert the character set of a file
 id  Print user and group id’s
 if  Conditionally perform a command
 ifconfig  Configure a network interface
 ifdown  Stop a network interface
 ifup  Start a network interface up
 import  Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
 install  Copy files and set attributes
J
 jobs  List active jobs
 join  Join lines on a common field
K
 kill  Stop a process from running
 killall  Kill processes by name
L
 less  Display output one screen at a time
 let  Perform arithmetic on shell variables
 ln  Create a symbolic link to a file
 local  Create variables
locate  Find files
 logname  Print current login name
 logout  Exit a login shell
 look  Display lines beginning with a given string
 lpc  Line printer control program
 lpr  Off line print
 lprint  Print a file
 lprintd  Abort a print job
 lprintq  List the print queue
 lprm  Remove jobs from the print queue
 ls  List information about files
 lsof  List open files
M
 make  Recompile a group of programs
 man  Help manual
 mkdir  Create new folders
 mkfifo  Make FIFOs (named pipes)
 mkisofs  Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
 mknod  Make block or character special files
 more  Display output one screen at a time
 mount  Mount a file system
 mtools  Manipulate MS-DOS files
 mtr  Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
 mv  Move or rename files or directories
 mmv  Mass Move and rename files
N
 netstat  Networking information
 nice  Set the priority of a command or job
 nl  Number lines and write files
 nohup  Run a command immune to hangups
 notify-send  Send desktop notifications
 nslookup  Query Internet name servers interactively
O
 open  Open a file in its default application
 op  Operator access
P
 passwd  Modify a user password
 paste  Merge lines of files
 pathchk  Check file name portability
 ping  Test a network connection
 pkill  Stop processes from running
 popd  Restore the previous value of the current directory
 pr  Prepare files for printing
 printcap  Printer capability database
 printenv  Print environment variables
 printf  Format and print data
 ps  Process status
 pushd  Save and then change the current directory
 pwd  Print Working Directory
Q
 quota  Display disk usage and limits
 quotacheck  Scan a file system for disk usage
 quotactl  Set disk quotas
R
 ram  ram disk device
 rcp  Copy files between two machines
 read  Read a line from standard input
 readarray  Read from stdin into an array variable
 readonly  Mark variables/functions as readonly
 reboot  Reboot the system
 rename  Rename files
 renice  Alter priority of running processes
 remsync  Synchronize remote files via email
 return  Exit a shell function
 rev  Reverse lines of a file
 rm  Remove files
 rmdir  Remove folders
 rsync  Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
S
 screen  Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
 scp  Secure copy (remote file copy)
 sdiff  Merge two files interactively
 sed  Stream Editor
 select  Accept keyboard input
 seq  Print numeric sequences
 set  Manipulate shell variables and functions
 sftp  Secure File Transfer Program
 shift  Shift positional parameters
 shopt  Shell Options
 shutdown  Shutdown or restart linux
 sleep  Delay for a specified time
 slocate  Find files
 sort  Sort text files
 source  Run commands from a file
 split  Split a file into fixed-size pieces
 ssh  Secure Shell client (remote login program)
 strace  Trace system calls and signals
 su  Substitute user identity
 sudo  Execute a command as another user
 sum  Print a checksum for a file
 suspend  Suspend execution of this shell
 symlink  Make a new name for a file
 sync  Synchronize data on disk with memory
T
 tail  Output the last part of file
 tar  Tape Archiver
 tee  Redirect output to multiple files
 test  Evaluate a conditional expression
 time  Measure Program running time
 times  User and system times
 touch  Change file timestamps
 top  List processes running on the system
 traceroute  Trace Route to Host
 trap  Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
 tr  Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
 true  Do nothing, successfully
 tsort  Topological sort
 tty  Print filename of terminal on stdin
 type  Describe a command
U
 ulimit  Limit user resources
 umask  Users file creation mask
 umount  Unmount a device
 unalias  Remove an alias
 uname  Print system information
 unexpand  Convert spaces to tabs
 uniq  Uniquify files
 units  Convert units from one scale to another
 unset  Remove variable or function names
 unshar  Unpack shell archive scripts
 until  Execute commands (until error)
 uptime  Show uptime
 useradd  Create new user account
 usermod  Modify user account
 users  List users currently logged in
 uuencode  Encode a binary file
 uudecode  Decode a file created by uuencode
V
 v  Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
 vdir  Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
 vi  Text Editor
 vmstat  Report virtual memory statistics
W
 wait  Wait for a process to complete
 watch  Execute/display a program periodically
 wc  Print byte, word, and line counts
 whereis  Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program
 which  Search the user’s $path for a program file
 while  Execute commands
 who  Print all usernames currently logged in
 whoami  Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)
 wget  Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
 write  Send a message to another user
X
 xargs  Execute utility, passing constructed argument lists
 xdg-open  Open a file or URL in the user’s preferred application
Y
 yes   Print a string until interrupted

 

O Que é XSS e o que é possível fazer com ele?

O Que é XSS e o que é possível fazer com ele?

E aí Pessoal Meu nome é Ne0xxx, sou novo na área de Segurança da informação, parada que eu curto bastante, e atualmente estou aprendendo com Brute Logic um poco sobre XSS.

Mas que diabos é Cross Site Scripting ou XSS ?

É uma falha de segurança que pode levar o atacante a obter informações sigilosas ou até mesmo controlar um servidor como se fosse o admin (Sequestrando o Browser) Alheio por exemplo, são muitas as possibilidades. E aí? Interessante ?

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Através de um XSS, o atacante consegue injetar codigos javascript no navegador da vitima.

Assim você pode direcionar usuários para outro site, capturar o que ele digita ou coletar os cookies que o identificam em um determinado site (podendo se passar pela vitima sem precisar de usar sua senha).

XSS está entre os mais desenfreados tipos de vulnerabilidades de aplicativos web existentes.

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Tõ falando maluco, né mole não.

Basicamente existem alguns tipos de XSS mas vamos falar apenas destes aqui:

XSS Reflected (Quando é executado pela URL)
XSS Stored (Quando é executado ao entrar na página)

XSS Reflected:

ataques XSS refletido, também conhecidos como ataques não persistentes, ocorre quando um script malicioso é refletido fora de uma aplicação web para o navegador da vítima.

O script é ativado através de um link, que envia uma solicitação para um site com uma vulnerabilidade que permite a execução de scripts maliciosos. A vulnerabilidade é tipicamente um resultado de solicitações de entrada quenão está sendo suficientemente higienizados, o que permite a manipulação de funções de um aplicativo web e a ativação de scripts maliciosos.

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Para distribuir o link malicioso, um Atacante normalmente incorpora o link em comentários, Foruns, medias sócias ou através de e-mail ( pishing). O link é usado junto a algum tipo de mensagem que provoca a clicar nele o que inicia o pedido XSS para um site explorado, refletindo o ataque de volta para o usuário.

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XSS Stored (Armazenado, Persistente):

O tipo mais prejudicial de XSS é o armazenado, XSS (Persistente). ataques XSS armazenados envolve um atacante injetar um script que é armazenado permanentemente sobre a aplicação de destino, (por exemplo, dentro de um banco de dados). O exemplo clássico de XSS armazenado é um script malicioso inserido por um atacante em um campo de comentário em um blog ou em um post no fórum.

Quando uma vítima navega para a página web afetada em um browser, a carga XSS será vista como parte da página web (assim como um comentário legítimo faria). Isto significa que as vítimas serão atingidas e nem saberão de onde veio o ataque.

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